However, they want to encourage recycling in proximity to reduce exports of recovered paper that is recycled in other countries. The total volume of exports of paper and paperboard in 2011, was 2.955.294 tonnes, of which 931.510 were exported to countries outside the European Union. In terms of imports, the total was 3.180.397 tons, thus surpassing the volume of exports and throwing a net deficit. Using the calculation method for apparent consumption, i.e.: production + import/export (without considering the variation of stocks), apparent consumption in 2011 amounted to 6.427.700 tons. In terms of paper recovered for recycling, the apparent pick-up in 2011 was 4.722.500 tonnes, of which 781.100 were exported (inside and outside the EU), against 1,152,400 imported tons, to meet a total of 5.093.800 tons. Reached collection rate was 73.5% and 81.2% utilization rates. The paper industry Spanish, is highly internationalized, being foreign trade an essential component both level materials raw of finished products. The export of recovered for recycling, paper is made to exporters of consumer goods that require raw materials to manufacture packaging, reducing the consumption of virgin fibre; that recovered paper exported, then returns in the form of packaging or other paper products.
However, when the exported material is new cardboard or paper, that material not normally returns to Spain, by what could generate some local shortage of that matter premium secondary. The new law on waste and contaminated soils, establishes in its article 16.3, that public administrations could establish mechanisms that prioritize recycling within the European Union, which would be a serious limitation to free international trade and would have a drastic effect on the environment. The European Union is highly surplus in recovered paper to recycle, exporting annually about ten million tons, that of another way would have to be incinerated or landfilled European. Some Spanish paper manufacturers promote this protectionism, and argue that transport increases CO2 emissions, when in reality the volume that they themselves export outside the EU is much greater. In reality, recycling of Spanish paper in Asia, reduced total CO2 emissions despite the transport. According to a study by ITENE (Instituto Tecnologico de packing transport and logistics), the transport of a container with 25 tons, it involves emissions of between 5 and 7 tonnes of CO2; but according to the European Commission, recycling reduces these emissions in some 22 tons (900 grams of CO2 per tonne recycled).