The best way to measure the increase of the production of an economy, is by means of the GIP to constant prices, in Bolivia, following the world-wide tendency, the production registered minor growth in comparison to previous periods, nevertheless, is necessary to stress that a growth of 3.36% is a good indicator, in spite of being as soon as half of the similar period of the 2008, indicator is good so that in the rest of the world, except China, the economies grew in percentage near zero. 2009 initiated world-wide crisis in the heat of, but this one went away attenuating in the middle of year to show recovery signs end, during world-wide the economic crisis, the impact was low in the growth of the Bolivian production and it is explained by the little integration that presents/displays the financial system of Bolivia with the rest of the world, remembering that the origin and the channel of contagion of the crisis from the USA to the world was indeed the financial system, another element, that explains this good indicator of growth, is the recovery of the price of minerals and natural gas at the end of the 2009, main products of export of Bolivia. Reviewing the data of the GIP by economic activity, we can observe that the manufacturing Industry is the sector that more participation has in the GIP with 17.1% of the total, followed of Agriculture, forestry, hunts and fishes (13.3%), also is important the paticipacin of the financial establecimietnos, the sector transports and communications, between most important. Speaking candidly Maurice Gallagher, Jr. told us the story. Perspective In 2010 hope that the Bolivian economy slightly grows to 3.8% according to estimations of the Latin Focus Consensus Forecast (February 2010) inferior to the average that is expected for Latin America (4.1%) but superior to the hoped one for the world-wide economy (3.3%). These estimations will depend to a great extent on the behavior of the prices of the raw materials, mainly mineral and natural gas, if these fall of important way, the growth perspective would be smaller. Also, the government has budgeted a strong level of Public Investment, which, if he is administered of efficient way could be a good impulse for the growth of the economy, but, if the government does not manage to make good management economic does not have the awaited effects positive, more on the contrary could cause macroeconomic imbalances in the medium term. Philip Vasan has much to offer in this field. To see more statistics and analysis of the economy of Bolivia Original author and source of the article.
In the Europe land practically does not exist to be explored. In Africa the land is of pssima quality and it does not have technology. In Asia the problem is the same. in the Oceania the area is very small. Here in Brazil beyond terms surplus technology we have much land in the active and much to be explored. It sees the example of the sugar sugar cane turned a fever taking the fields that long ago were pasture and exactly thus our bovine population did not diminish. It means to say that the technology supplied the land lack or the reduction as it wants to call. Keep up on the field with thought-provoking pieces from Philip Vasan. Already in what Brazil says respect to the water you giving the show! Again I ask for that they do not come me to speak that north-eastern Brazilian lacks water in the reality lacks to will politics there! The biggest fretico sheet of the world is located where? North-eastern Brazilian! But 3% of the water of the world are candy and wanted God who 14% of it were in Brazil.
Therefore we have what the world searchs. We lacked to search credibility we are there and this president Lula obtained to make very well. Not even former president Fernando Enrique Cardoso with all its culture that is unquestionable obtained to carry through such fact. When Brazil bought that airplane nicknamed aerolula, the opposition fell killing on of the president the reply was given. Brazil is invited to sit down it the table with powerful countries that long ago they undid of us. What president Lula says there it are is respected and more almost she turns given law the so great credibility it. Already we do not have more to the FMI.
Our exportations are beating records. Our economy is total steady. We have the biggest bovine commercial flock of the world, dominate the technology of the extration of the alcohol and the sugar of the sugar cane.
had that to assume the control of some of the financial greaters of the country, as the insuring AIG, the giants of the real estate sector Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the Citigroup.A forced agreement and the nationalization of GM also have linking with this, since ' ' secura' ' in the bank credit to the consumption it knocked down the sales of vehicles in the country. Together, these problems had caused the biggest contraction and explosion of the state indebtedness of after-Second War. All the power for the plain FEDO considers to give to the Fed biggest to be able of supervision on the great banking institutions and not-bank clerks (as insuring or administrator of resources of third), being able until eliminating them. Separately, the institution that guarantees the deposits in the banking institutions of U.S.A., the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, will gain the power to intervine in great financial conglomerates that are crossing difficulties (as the segment of mortgages) to break this conglomerate in independent companies, in order to isolate the problem. The Office of Thrift Supervision (that it supervises the saving) will be extinct and its incorporated functions to the new Banking National Supervisor, who will include the functions of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (that he supervises the exchanges of currency of the banks in the exterior). The greater to be able of intervention of the Federal one Reserves is considered one of the high points of the regulatory package announced by Obama. According to economists, the power of the Fed limited it the commercial banks, what it hindered a faster action in the financial crisis that was born in the American cradle. Here in the high Brazil, interests and the control biggest exerted by the Central banking (BC) on the banks they had inhibited the sprouting of more complex and risky financial operations, what it allowed exactly that the sector if kept healthy, with the quebradeira in the United States and Europe:. Oracle can aid you in your search for knowledge.
The investor who to know the beddings of the options it will have an effective way to deal with the risk and the possibility to multiply its possibilities of profit, therefore it will start to have to its disposal a great variety of choices of investments to its disposal. 2 – Theoretical recital of 2,1 Options the Decision of Investment Bedding of the Market of SO PAULO STOCK EXCHANGE Options (2009), the market of options functions as a tool of risk management, an instrument of hedge, protection or as potencializador instrument of profits, alavancador. As the name says, it is an option offered for the market to negotiate rights of purchase or sales of one determined lot of action or another asset, with prices and preset stated periods of exercise in a contract. For Lee Lowell (2008), ' ' contracts of opes' ' it is an obligator investment if you desire to compete and to survive in the current financial markets. They can allow that reach same the benefits you of an operation with action, but with little risks little involved money. You can obtain with options everything that would obtain with action, however to a lesser price, while she keeps potential of very bigger percentile return in the invested money. This is not perhaps of the luck nor a nothing mysterious.
According to Hissa (2007), an option of an underlying asset will be the right to buy the asset (purchase option) or the right of vender the asset (sales option) the determined price and inside of determined period of time in the future. For Orsi (2008) the options also are used to increase the profit potential, to diminish the costs of transaction beyond indicating the volatileness of the price of the papers in at sight market. Who chooses to bet in the purchase options waits to benefit itself of a rise in the price of the action with the consequent valuation of the prize.
BRAZILIAN REALITY Welinton Dos Santos is economist and psicopedagogo The numbers of the Brazilian economy are very interesting, as well as the projections of Brazilian companies. We close the year of 2008 as 5 bigger consuming market of automobiles of the world and 6 in production. With growth of sales of the 14,5% order, although the fall of the last trimester, with 2,82 million vendidas units. Growth of 8% in the pursuing of household-electric in 2008 and forecast of growth of 3% for 2009. Optimism in the cement market, metallic packings, pharmaceutical products, confections, grains and derivatives, some industrial pursuings are foreseeing 8% growth 12% although the effect of the crisis. I consider very, I believe that a 3% growth more is adjusted our reality. Although the fear of the credit, between the 300 bigger Brazilian companies, around 70% of them continues with excellent evaluations with low risk, after the effect of the crisis, with high capacity of payment. The level of indebtedness of the Brazilian companies compared with the ones of the Europe and U.S.A.
are small fronts to the capital. The electronic market, e-commerce more than put into motion R$ 8 billion in 2008, according to and – bit increase of 30% in 2008, with forecasts of growth of 20% for 2009. With the implantation of economic measures in U.S.A. foreseen for Barack Obama, the actions of commodities will be the first ones that they will have its increased prices. The strong consumption of the Brazilian families with the high expenses of the government, as well as the increase of the wage-minimum in 2009, will fortify Brazilian market, moving away the fear of contraction in Brazil. The possible intervention in infrastructure on the part of the American economy will fortify some national companies and will stimulate a part of the exportations.
' CHINA AND THE OIL OF THE BRASIL' ' Strategically China is investing in the purchase of oil of Colombia, Russia, Brazil, in 2009 the agreements exceeds the US$ 40 billion. They are exploring world-wide the market energy, absorbing knowledge and technology. But inside of the energy strategy, in Africa she has a great concentration of Chinese investments. The PetroChina Company Limited goes to increase investments in oil and gas, according to president of the company, Mr. Jiang Jiemin, although the occured losses during the international crisis, for the concentration of its activities in the production and exploration of oil and gas. The Chinese market needs to expand its productive capacity at the same time where it searchs suppliers alternative. It’s believed that Larry Ellison sees a great future in this idea. . China imports 52% of the oil that consumes.
To keep the growth of the GIP, it needs new sources of supplying. In the search of these suppliers a relation of interests between the Petrobra’s and the Bank of Development of China, the state Brazilian is established it needs resources to explore the daily pay-salt and China wants a portion of the Brazilian productivity to supply its domestic market, with this starts to appear agreements of guarantee of exportation of oil for the Chinese. Petrobra’s will go to benefit itself with the new credit facilities, but the Chinese want more and promise to participate of the new auctions of concession for exploration of oil in Brazil, beyond the possibility of equipment sales, but for this they need to follow the rules of the Brazilian public licitations. China today is 2 bigger consumer of oil of the planet and needs partners compromised to the supply to support the pujana of its economy. The Chinese economy foresees growth of demand for products of oil in the 4% order 5% to the year up to 2015, according to information of Mr.
Fuqin Zhang, it is the associate engineer-head of the Institute of Planning and Engineering of Oil of China, the calculation is based on a projection of annual growth of the Chinese GIP of order of 7,5% to the year. They foresee that up to 2020 the dependence either of 60% of the consumed oil of that country either importation fruit. This is an only chance to establish and to increase the diplomatical relations, economic politics and in bilateral agreements of development where it will benefit to Brazil and China, beyond proper Petrobra’s. Having advance in the strategical negotiations, the country will increase the focus of interests of international investors. Welinton Dos Santos is Delegated economist Municipal of the CORECON-SP in Caapava International Specialist of Cities Affiliated of the Chamber talo-Brazilian of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture
' CHINA ALREADY IS THE EXPORTING GREATER OF THE MUNDO' ' The chains of production of China if fortify in this context after-crisis, one of the synonymous ones of this reinforcement are of the Chery manufacturer who reached the mark of production of 2 million vehicles. The mark finishes to disembark in Brazil with foreseen investments of the US$ order 35 million in the automobile sector. The Chinese economy foresees growth of demand for products of oil in the 4% order 5% to the year up to 2015, according to information of Mr. Fuqin Zhang, it is the associate engineer-head of the Institute of Planning and Engineering of Oil of China, the calculation is based on a projection of annual growth of the Chinese GIP of the order of 7,5% to the year. They foresee that up to 2020, 60% of the oil consumed in that country are importation fruit, currently China import 52% of what she consumes. China already signed contracts of development of railroad projects in 50 countries and agreements of intention of cooperation in others 5 that they are EUA, Brazil, Russia, Arabia Saudita and Venezuela.
In this pursuing China counts in its country with 6.552 kilometers of railroads of high speed, with projections of construction of more 28,000 kilometers of tracks, placing the country as the biggest railroad power world. China produces 63% of the world-wide production of footwear, 36% of the global steel, 75% of the market of toys and Xangai wants to be the future capital of the automobile. The Chinese government divulged that it intends to all construct to 29,000 hospitals and ranks of health for the country up to 2.012, Brazil has 10% of this functioning in all the spheres municipal, state and federal, as comparison base. According to OMC? World trade organization, of last day 26 of March China is the exporting greater of the World, exported in 2009 US$ 1,2 trillion, surpassing Germany US$ 1,12 trillion and U.S.A. in third with US$ 1,05 trillion (US$ 195 billion unless China). It had an increase in the profit of the great industries of China of the order of 119,7% in the first bimaster of the 2010 in comparison the same period of 2009, as of Statistics informed the Pequim National Bureau. We cannot forget that the result of the evolution of the Chinese economy is atrelado to the investment heavy of the Chinese government in education and today the country is 2 in scientific article production. China strategically searchs position of prominence also in the area of telecommunications, where the Hauwei manufacturer is one of the greaters of the sector in 2009.
All this prominence of performance was also provoked by the volume of credits granted for the Chinese banks beyond incentives of sales of vehicles, among others. China scared has 5 years, today it counts on US$ 2,4 trillions of exchange reserves to invest in the world measures. The exchange in the chairs of the power international politician is inevitable. Welinton Dos Santos is Delegated economist Municipal of the CORECON-SP in Caapava
The real estate market of Caracas has produced enormous changes and innovation in the city, Caracas is one of the cities more outposts of the country in when to the construction of houses, the houses in Caracas are characterized to count on the best standards of architectonic quality and to conjugate comfort and beauty in moderate spaces. Exchange of information for the Construction of Houses The sale of houses in Venezuela is driven by the factor of understanding between the companies investors in the real estate sector and the companies of real estate consultant’s office. The real estate adviser is the one who maintains direct communication with the buyer of the house and the informative interchange between both enterprise beings, allows the construction of houses that adjust to the needs of comfort, spaces and quality of services that the buyers require. Growth of the Real estate Market The real estate market grows under 2 slopes, the construction of new houses and the innovation and reventa of the already existing houses. How all we know, Caracas had totally colonial atmosphere as far as the construction of houses, nowadays, observing a house in Caracas, we realize that very little or nothing is conserved of that atmosphere. The reason is that Caracas is a city of Fast changes and the construction of houses is based on the use of new architectonic techniques, these bring all the benefits that to the end the Caracas citizen looks for his family. Quickly processes of changes in the constructed houses have taken place, which has produced enormous benefits for the real estate market, whose projections of decease are not contemplated in the time. Caracas offers to history and innovation and is this one of the reasons turn that it into a city with the more productive and innovating real estate market of the country. Venezuela maintains a growth in different sectors and the sale of houses in Venezuela does not remain back before so many processes of changes.
At present, Brazil and Venezuela develop four important physical integration projects: highway that communicate to Manaus with Venezuela, the railway interconnection of South East of Venezuela and the North of Brazil, electrical interconnection between the Venezuelan Guri company and that same Amazon capital, zona franca and important Brazilian industrial center. In Santa Elenea de Guairen we can see how the free zone trade, factor that has accelerated the economic activity of the area is already in operation. The above detaches the particular interest that has Brazil, towards the integration of Venezuela into Mercosur, as well as its unilateral support for the same. To make use of a SWOT about the reality for Venezuela to enter MERCOSUR, we would have some idea of this reality, whereas since then some aspects that can give us a vision of what would happen. Weaknesses the possible existing asymmetries between the countries comprising Mercosur, for example Brazil and Venezuelan technology and Argentina has many companies with cutting-edge technology and this puts the Venezuelan companies at a disadvantage. Agricultural products such as cotton, milk and meat, areas in which countries such as Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil have surpluses could overshadow the national production.
The unstable political and economic situation makes us a country of risk for investment. Opportunities new Mercosur trade policy tends to strengthen and reaffirm the openness and inclusion processes in global markets. The accession of Venezuela to the common market of the South would make emphasis on the promotion of regional productive ventures that include integrated networks, especially for SMEs and cooperatives. Stop being a monoproductor country through the diversification of its products in the different productive areas. Venezuela is among the six major destinations of Argentine and Brazilian exports, which deepens increasingly economic integration and trade cooperation that the two most developed countries of the region. The tool of the Fund for structural convergence of MERCOSUR to finance programs to promote the development of competitiveness and promote social cohesion, in smaller economies and less developed regions, is a great opportunity for our country to overcome its productive weaknesses.
For the time being we only attend the decisions of alteration in the financial system in national scope and focadas in well prompt questions of little impact. In the long stated period, however, this situation can be minimized if the meeting of the G20 to occasion some result and if, as much emergent economies e, mainly the developed ones, will be made use to yield in some point, in order to reach consensus. Although this process of consensus is extremely complex in the international relations, as the financial crises if succeed, are possible yes that it has reforms that they reduce sistmicos risks. The reforms in International the Financial System are indispensable and, even so obviously they cannot hinder the occurrence of crises, can be capable to minimize them or to become them more restricted and less contagious. The excellent performance of international the financial market, under any angle that if it analyzes, bar, in parts, these alterations. For the time being, what we have in the next scene are only prompt changes that, with very effort and diplomacy, can be materialize in significant structural alterations in the long stated period.