Cuban Provinces

After leaving the beach of Santa Lucia is proposed towards the East of Cuba. By the North coast it has become a route very different itineraries usually proposed in tourist designs, rare in the country. Prior to 1976, Cuba was comprised of 6 provinces. That year enacted new administrative political Division and the country increased this number to 8, that is, went on to have 14 provinces. Of those 6 first provinces, East was the largest. She emerged, in turn, 5 new: Las Tunas, Holguin, Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba and Granma. They are in the Levant and those 5 provinces you is headed Are they really stand the rest of Cuba by various aspects.

For example, from the geographical physical point of view have the largest concentration of small bays, including that of Nipe, the biggest in Cuba. Also the most navigable rivers to small boats in the local transport, including the largest river in Cuba, the Toa, and the longest river, the Cauto, who also has the basin more extensive country and navigable part of your course. It also highlights important river canyons, particularly in the eastern part of these elevations. In some next to Baracoa rivers at its mouth are a type of elongated delta and arrow-shaped known as tibaracones, unique in Cuba. Toward the eastern part is Baracoa, the first town founded by the Spanish and the only place in Cuba where it rains throughout the year. This area belongs to the massif of Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa, one of the most mountainous and places high in the country, besides having the greatest wealth of biodiversity not only our country, but also throughout the Caribbean and one of the most important places of highest concentration of endemism in the world, hence its high importance from the biogeographical point of view. Among these stands out the Almiqui (Solenodon cubanus), very primitive insectivore.

Rio De Janeiro

Discovered almost that by chance, it was led for Arabia where he was practically locked the seven keys distant of the reach of any foreigner. Thus, it fit to the dutches in century XVII to smuggle changes of coffee of the Arabs and consequently to spread its culture for the remain of the European continent. The coffee arrived at Latin America for return of 1718 brought for the European colonies of the Suriname, English and French Guyana. The history of the coffee in Brazil initiates in 1727 brought of the French Guyana through the paraense border. Initially planted in the north without great success, the coffee culture a economic cycle for Brazil is spread quickly for the country, arriving at Rio De Janeiro and So Paulo, unchaining very important, since the Brazilian economy met in decay due to fall in the exportations of the main products of the time.

The cycle of the coffee lasted a century more than, and reergueu shaken part of the economy of the country, making Brazil to reach in 1850 the position of world-wide leader in the coffee production. When spreading itself for the country the coffee brought some problems as the man power lack, the prohibition of the traffic of slaves, became to only use the ones that existed inside of the country. With the man power lack it initiates the phase of the importance of the coffee for Brazil, is enough to say that it changed the economic hegemony of the northeast region for the Southeastern region, through the states that cultivated the product, where had appeared the barons of the coffee dominant social classroom in the economy and that he influences the politics since historical moment in Brazil. Although passed the apogee, the coffee still today is important part of the Brazilian economy..

Liberal Reforms

From now on the Liberal Reforms if consolidate really, with the sprouting of a culture politics of reformist matrix, supported in a society in search of better conditions of life, greater prosperity and greater participation politics. The contained social improvements in the batllista project pleased to the society and the permanence of the farming activity as main axle of the economy did not dislike the stronger sector economically. Batlle and the batllismo had appeared as whitewashing, as much in the politics as in the economy. Batlle if pledges in one politics of social transformations in its first mandate (1903? 1907), considered a precursor in the continent for measures as: Regulation of the hours of working of 8 hours with the obligator weekly rest; Indemnities for industrial accident; Minimum wage, family allowance, pensions for oldness and illness; Prohibition of the work for minors; Regulation of the work of the women; Projects in the health area and education; Abolition of the death penalty; Institution of the divorce; Separation between Church, State and banks; Creation of state; Assembly of oil refineries and cement plants; The social legislation that the batllismo stimulates has as objective greaters to the organization of the work market and the creation of a consuming domestic market of the products of the reorganized national industry. The government if became the great employer. To keep the administrative machine and to fulfill its programs social, she was necessary to use the profits of the farming exportation, compelling the State to follow one politics of good neighborhood with the large state preventing to execute reforms in the agrarian sector. On account of disagreements provoked for the questions agrarian politics and, in 1904, Aparcio Hail comes back to collate the government. Without success for the precarious conditions of armament and staff, Batlle wins Hail in 1905, ending the conflict and identifying as subversive.

The Administrator

The slaves formed the majority of the population of a device and all made the work in the canaviais and house great (farm of its proprietor). Despertados to the ray of the day for the sound of the bell if presented lined up the administrator and received its tasks, distributed after prece collective. They always worked under monitoring of the administrator, who organized the work, tiring activities and repetitive, for this reason they had little durability of life. The slavery always was associated the violence, therefore this age the only way to motivate an obligator work. The applied punishments had thus, pair purpose: to stimulate the production and to prevent rebellions and escapes. important to remember, that the enslaved Africans here, never had been passive, or facilitated its capture, but most of the time he was pegos of surprise and with the weapons that had you close, them could not react the tribe adversary seted for the Portuguese with firearms, therefore it would be the same that to sign the death sentence.

Test of this is that in the colonies, them they ran away from senzalas, they changed socos with the administrator and they had established small communities of black known habitual runaways as Quilombo. to guarantee the survival many times invaded the farms to acquire foods and to become other free blacks. Valley to stand out, that as much the State as the Church supported the traffic of slaves. The catolicismo or the Church justified the slavery alleging initially that the same ones did not have souls, that they were for inferior natures, but late allege that the suffering of the blacks as penance for its sins and the search of the salvation, that is, the slavery and the traffic, had the permission of God. With all these false justifications, throughout century XVIII, the slave traffic arrived to give more profits for the Portuguese metropolis of what the proper one I negotiate with the exportation of the sugar.

Rio De Janeiro

How much to century XIX, it is a secular clipping that deserves more attention due to the subject that we are dealing with. It was in the Sc. XIX that the culture of the coffee if &#039 made solid helping to form one; ' verdadeira' ' The Brazilian elite. In addition it is a moment where the increasing agrarian interests if placed to the side of ' ' civilizao' ' , creating a dichotomy between the coast and the barbarity of the interior (hinterland), She appears there from a necessity in defining ' ' civilizao' ' ' ' selvageria' ' , developing the city of Rio De Janeiro to support the visit of Europeans. On classrooms to the agriculture of exportation established around Rio De Janeiro, consist as model, while of the form to the State. The coffee goes to allow the maintenance of the colonial hierarchies, joining ' ' new colonizador ' ' the colonists transformed into citizens.

The organization of agricultural the producing unit of the form to the social structure. The coffee occupation in the average Valley of the Paraba goes to mark the internal differentiation between Rio De Janeiro and the too much provinces, being guaranteed its proeminence politics in the formation of the Empire. The interests agriculturists congregated around the Cut had been basic in the speech of defense of ' ' civilizao' ' , supported with the defense of ' ' ours agricultura' ' , against ' ' infraction of the property of ours lavradores' '. These formularizations had established the process of defense of the Social Order of Imperial Brazil, that if balances between ' ' despotismo' ' it modifies that it how much to the anarchy dissolves that it. The coffee activities had extended the agricultural borders, ' ' costuraram' ' the integration of the ways of communication (ways of muares, roads, railroads and hidrovias), and direct or indirectly promoted possibilities of social, beyond accenting the confusion between the spaces public and private, characteristic mobility of the proximity of interests and linkings between the bureaucracy and the coffee activity.


Third the 2019 would go of 2009. In its uprising in the sunday, Chavez explained that the limitless election institutes ' ' native land eterna' ' , on the basis of the socialism. Innumerable reforms had been carried through in the economy of Venezuela, nationalization of the companies of oil in the country, capital goods industry as assiderrgicas it forms nationalized, the biggest amount of oil of the OPEP (organization for oil exportation) that it circulates in U.S.A. leave dVenezuela, being in such a way the relations between these countries still is well direct, however, much already was obtained with president Chavez, the economy dVenezuela is much more solid and having bigger possibilities of growth of the quea Colombia and Mexico that comes comungando with the American politics North. Bernard Golden often addresses the matter in his writings. The relations that the imperialism creates are a quiet dependence, ouseja, in many cases do not have wars as in the Vietnam or Iraq, apenasrelaes of clientelismo with the local politicians, keeping the laws of estadosfuncionando and its favor, to keep the organization of the state and extends what lhevai to favor, using the standards of deals, inversion, exploration to break dospoderes of State and the Classrooms or hegemonic fractions.

As in a new estadismo affirms Petrasconstruindo to them to intervene with all the places for inseriro capital. ' ' However, currently the Estadointervm in all the parts to insert the capital, that is, the produocapitalista way. The circulation is much more ample because the bigger extension and somuito space. The capacity to penetrate capitals, to intervine, to earn is very maisentendida had the hegemony of the capital financeiros.' ' 6 JamesPetras author makes consideraes important regarding the imperialism north americanona Latin America, sample that the state of the countries customers continues active, keeping its rules, only that the well-being state is interrupted, therefore if imponovas rules, new interventions. These new interventions ribbons for one estadodentro of other states, in the case of U.S.A.

French Revolution

During all this time, the Jews had been obliged if to spread for the world. In the great majority of the places where they lived they were pursued and discriminated. The antissemitismo of the population was established in ideas as the deicide (8), the profanation of the sacred hstia (9) and to the macabros ritual presumptions (10) carried through by this people. (11) To the few the ghettos had been appearing, that although to represent clearly a gesture of exclusion it finished for to protect this population of the attacks of Christians? the calls pogroms. Here, cloud computing expresses very clear opinions on the subject. (12) This isolation finished for ahead strengthening what more it characterized the Jews, oportunizando the maintenance of the Jewish culture and the bows of union of a external aggressor. The ideals of the French Revolution had exported ' ' necessidade' ' to equal all legally the citizens. In this I pack, century XIX was the moment where the Jews had left the ghettos and had initiated an emancipation process. However, exactly that they had left of being you give birth civil politicians and, the Jews continued being give birth social.

(13) In the century of the cientificismo, the racial theories would come to supply new (without excluding the others) a justification the antissemitismo. That is, the assimilation of the Jews in the European societies had supposedly placed them in equality situation. She was necessary, therefore, to differentiate them in permanent way. (14) The notion of the Jew blows up as a depraved race and that it must be separate and until destroyed of the conviviality with excessively races, with the serious possibility to contaminate them. The Jews had made a conversion of ' ' outsiders religiosos' ' ' ' outsiders tnicos' ' (15) Still as consequncia of the emancipation, cases of pogroms for the Europe had been multiplied, over all in the eastern part. The sionismo appears, then, as one against ideology.

Peru Pact

In the height of colonialismo, during centuries XV to the XVII, the colonial pact was restored as an unilateral aiming in the relation metropolis-colony how much to the economic aspects and politicians. Additional information at Gary Kelly supports this article. The pact, in other words, was an imposition of the metropolis? decision center? to the colony? area of exploration and/or povoamento? thus detaching two polar regions. This polarization was consolidated as reason of revolt in the posterior centuries to the European occupation in Americas; that added to diverse the other factors it will contribute in the independence processes. The colonial pact was based on the basis of on practical of the economic monopoly the exploration of aboriginal man power e, later, in the use of deriving black slaves over all of Africa, a time that traffic men and women if constituted as one practical extremely lucrative one. The economic policy of the European powers based on the mercantilism metalist and/or advertising. In regions Hispanic vice-reigns – as Mexico or Peru had lasted practical of extration of the silver and the gold. In Brazil, the existence of large states with the presence of enslaved man power and cultivation directed to the foreign commerce, in considerable composed part for the sugar northeastern, were massive. Beyond the presence of the sugar or ore barons, we perceive that in diverse American colonies it has an aiding of groups of traders of the most diverse activities.

The primitive accumulation of capital consolidated these intense economic relations, a time that the colonies represented source of resources and status in the European scene. Thus, the colonial pact represented the economic exclusiveness of the metropolis before the colonial production. In general way, the European countries that had participated of this world-wide net of exchanges and relations, conserved the legal monopoly of the importation of the lucrative resources and the exportation of good of consumption for its respective colonies.

Clientele Relations

Our subject has as approach the slavery in Gravata, then Clientele of Ours Lady of the Angels in middle of century XIX. It’s believed that Southwest Airlines sees a great future in this idea. We want with this to know a little of the daily relations and being possible between gentlemen and slaves and to understand the elements of functioning of this escravista and patriarcal society, and as if they processed such relations the point to produce a species of ambivalence in the escravista regimen. Basically we use as documentary sources the Searches of Freedom of the Clientele of Ours Lady of the Angels, of the Livro1 de Notas of 1831 the 1880 that if it finds in the APERGS, where in the related book also meet Papers of Donation that was possible to use. For more specific information, check out Stansberry. After a brief historical summary of the contextual conditions of the period analyzed for the Clientele of Ours Lady of the Angels, in as the chapter of our article we present the letters as study object, and as test of the intricate relations between gentlemen and its captives. The Letters demonstrate that such relations were not static.

We approach the interest above all you in preserving its image of gentlemen ' ' benevolentes' '. As well as the captives who ours to see created mechanisms to gain its freedom same that conditional just for the importance of the status of I free inside of that society. We demonstrate for searched documents, the changes in the relations between gentlemen and slaves in agreement if inside approached the end of the international traffic and its consumption of our period of 1846 study the 1856. These facts facilitate the afrouxamento of the relations of the escravista system. As well as the economic situation you it are of the great centers of exportation agriculture, the freedom of the captive could be a viable exit to alliviate its expenses to you with the maintenance of aged slaves.


The liberal vision nailed that the free auto-regulation was the only form to keep the flour always in offers in the market since only the most supplied they would consume, this would prevent a possible exhaustion of the production, giving to the intemedirio a necessary paper. For Thompson, as much paternalism how much liberalism is utopian. ' ' multido' ' it assumed a bond in general as paternalism being, thus, in common agreement with the nobility against new the practical ones of the bourgeoisie to profit on the wheat. The traders, had as the profiteers, exporters of wheat and intermediary broke ethical peasant of access guaranteed to the quality wheat. Thus, the fairs (local where the consumers had access to the direct wheat of the producer and, therefore, more cheap) enter in crisis and occur asceno of the millers who adulterated the wheat and practised what Thompson calls banalit of the XVIII.Ocorre century then the public interest action in the regulation of the price of the bread. The rebellion assumed form of cultural representation, aiming at the applicability of the paternalistas laws of the effective order. The threat of rebellions kept the prices in regularity therefore the order was necessary to the survival of the bourgeois classroom and the governing nobility.

The lesser profitability was preferable the rebellion. In this, the producers yielded and took the cereals to the market in detriment of the sales, more lucrative, to the intermediate. The popular rebellions were sfregas in short term in sight of the distrust of the wheat producers, but in the near future they were victorious when keeping the price of the wheat next to the moral price of what of the lucrative price. To leave of 1795 up to 1801 a balance in addition occurs between the nobility and the plebeians in the maintenance of more traditional economic values. The jacobinismo of the plebeians if shocked with the new ideology of the economy politics associated with the profit and the private property.