Gone are the days when the currency and bank deposits were the only way to preserve and increase personal savings. The development of the financial services market constrained all talk about the stock market, real estate and other opportunity to multiply their capital. Anyone investing in them, can apply the potential of these tools to increase their welfare. Nevertheless, many do not even see the perspectives that opens in front of them investment. Largely because of confusing, referring to investments by investing in themselves. Meanwhile, it is not the same thing. Investment – a way to get extra money.
Buying an asset (stock, currency, real estate), the buyer relies on the fact that in future the cost will rise. If his expectations are met, then he sells the asset at a profit. Unsuccessful acquisition leads to losses. The principle of any investment elementary: money makes money. Suppose a bank deposit of $ 100 is put at 10% per annum. A year later, the account will have $ 110, two – $ 121. That is for 2-year yield was 21%, or 10,5% per annum. How is this possible if the original return the contribution was only 10%? From a mathematical point of view, all explained compound interest, and with life – folk wisdom "money makes money".
In this case, the longer the investment period, the more money time to bring your money. After 3 years of annual yield would be equal to 11%. The task of investing is to use this unique opportunity to increase capital. Yet many people do not give the capital work, content with brief single jobs. Figuratively speaking, investing is akin to sculpting a snowball. As the snow sticks to the first snow, and the percentage of "stick" to the initial investment. If all while removing the accumulated profits, and the value of initial capital will remain unchanged. Consequently, one of the main principles of investing is in a continuous cycle of money. The longer they work, the greater the final amount. It is important to invest only free money. Otherwise, the contingency is too big a temptation to spend will not only profits, but the original investment.
But in the case of refinancing for the loan is not already buying property and repayment of previously taken Loan tax advantage is lost! Let's try a concrete example to assess the benefits of refinancing mortgages. Suppose a client three years ago took $ 100,000 at 15% per annum in foreign currency for 15 years. Monthly payment was about $ 1,400. Three years, the borrower enjoyed property tax deductions. Now he has decided to take a loan at a lower rate – 11% per annum in exchange for the remaining 12 years.
Monthly payment is $ 1,170 so each month will save $ 230. Total savings over 12 years – about $ 33,200. This should take into account: the remaining 12 years of loan repayment in the first bank the borrower would have returned about $ 14,100 as a result of tax benefits. That is, with allowance for losses on tax; benefits when lending to a borrower would save only about $ 19,100. Now subtract from that amount, the projected cost of refinancing itself: they constitute, according to various estimates, from $ 1,100 to $ 4,000. The expenditures may include: – bank commission (0-2% of the amount Loan) – transfer of money ($ 100) – Insurance (0,8-1,5% of the loan amount) – evaluation apartments ($ 100-150) – services mortgage broker (0,2-2%) – notary fees (up to $ 260) – the fee for registration of a pledge ($ 287-450). Total savings customer, taking into account all the costs will be from $ 15,100 to $ 18,000.
And in terms of capital – to the visitors. Yes, and capital – both on materialized "Dead" labor. A look at these same achievements of capitalism in terms of formations that preceded it. And then there is the ideology of capitalism – the denial of any benefits to the human person, given to him by birth, with recognizing the need for any man to seek all the blessings in life only by its own efforts, with the concept of wealth as a state attained work and efforts of a person, not a guaranteed him his own high position in society. For the lords who are accustomed to consider the wealth invariable attribute their condition, the fact that the possibility of his residence – if not specifically deal with the multiplication inherited condition – seemed to have shocked all the basics. Previously, the king considered it his duty to support the impoverished nobles with gifts of new estates and land. Capitalism to abolish the system of awards, as repealed and serfdom. Now the former feudal lord, who lost his fortune, is at the bottom of society, and vice versa, his former land, using his nous and could climb to the topmost level of the social ladder. On this historical turning point and the distribution depending on the capital seemed to shape the distribution of labor: it is not just a capitalist to reap the fruits of wealth, as the displacement of a feudal lord, he organized the production, he invested their own money "in business", manufactured goods, which still had to sell, and at prices that would cover the costs. Finally, he risked his capital: in the case of its own failure actions, he could lose their wealth and descend into the ranks of the poor masses. Former minions of wealth – lords – these worries do not know, and comparing them with the frantic activity of a new bourgeois class, was quite possible to conclude that its remuneration they practiced: in the form of payment for their organizational efforts, the board "for the risk," Finally, in the form of fees for "abstinence" (because they do not spend all his fortune and put him "in case").
As a result, actually in the market economy, there were only enterprise at the global level – the result of economic globalization. But if the economy had saved natural for a market economy bankruptcy, avoid bankruptcy of enterprises at the global level will not allow policy. The support of such enterprises from the countries further reduces the efficiency of the economy as a separate region and the world economy. Since, in this case, the effect of the collapse of the economy increases the efficiency of turbulence – it overcrowded warehouses, and a sharp decrease in purchasing power, the collapse of an established infrastructure for the promotion of consumer goods, and the general explosion of social tensions. According to the author of All-Russian economic program senp culprit of the current global economic crisis is precisely the globalization of the economy – the enemy of market economy. Full antagonist of globalization in the economy – is senp program. On the basis of an independent (from the current economic) development of small and medium business market-based system senp decided the main issue for sustainable economic development without the crises created market system is almost absolute demand (above does not happen) for manufactured goods in the current time mode (online), which allows us to consider the goods in the System senp liquidity and commodity producers to give an absolute guarantee payment for its goods, almost at the stage of production. Thus, the system removes senp for producers substantially all the risks associated with the overproduction or underproduction of shortcomings.
Commercial Insurance. Gradually insurance operations have become commercial in nature, when the entrepreneur-insurer has run a business for profit. This process accomplished primarily in the marine insurance in the xiv century. in Italy, which then belonged to the hegemony of the trade on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. At the end of the xvi century. Centre for Maritime Commercial Insurance has moved to England. In the second half xvii. England created "fire office, which first began to insure buildings against fire.
In 1762 the British insurance company, "Eck-vitebl" began life insurance. In 1825, France appeared Insurance liability, after a while in Germany began to insure cattle from mortality, but in France – agricultural plants from hail. After World War I to the beginning of 1920. Insurance finally formed in many countries and has established itself as one of the most profitable areas of business. In this sector of the economy, a huge financial resources.
The development of insurance business in Russia. The first rudiments of insurance in Russia recorded in the monument of ancient Russian law "Russian Truth (X-XI centuries) This document provides interesting information on the rules relating to material compensation for the harm the community in case of murder. Wild Veera " payable in case of death from the attack of an unknown assassin, and in case of death occurring as a result of inadvertent, unintentional killing. The insurance principle was manifested in the layout of losses among the members community. In Russia before the end of the xviii century.
The fact that the premiums for such programs are not subject to tax deductions. As a result, in the State Treasury is paid you 13% tax. Taking into account all these factors and developed a program funded pension insurance. With the help of every person is guaranteed to provide a decent retirement. Here are a few benefits of participation in funded pension insurance program: opportunity to contribute, and hence receive a pension in any currency (rubles, euros, dollars). Agree, good monetary gain to the state pension is additional guarantee of secure old age; on contributions to pension insurance policy calculated a guaranteed income, which may be increased due to additional investment income, the ability to start pension payments already reaching customers age 45. Such a stipulation of pension insurance is especially attractive against the backdrop of the continual talk about increasing the retirement age for state pension. But the most attractive pension insurance program makes it flexible terms that can be quickly adjusted to suit individual customer requirements: at the end of the period of accumulation You can either take the unformed pension fund lump sum, or receive a monthly pension for life, in case of death of the insured to fully funded pension program, the remainder of the payments will receive relatives; contributions under the program may be suspended upon the occurrence of insolvency of the client.
In this case, future pension will be recalculated depending on the size of the accumulated fund by the time the contributions, not 'Burn' the accumulation and the death of the insured during the period of payment. Relatives will be paid a lump sum large sum of money. And, perhaps, one of the most important things that distinguishes the state pension from the individual insurance – the attitude to the customer. You do not have to hatch or – worse yet – stand in long lines waiting for an appointment with the right specialist, as often happens in public institutions. Fixed for you personal adviser lucidly and in detail explain all aspects of pension insurance program.
In some cases, do not even have to come to office: full and comprehensive consultations are available by phone. The benefits of such programs on pension insurance are obvious. That's why many employers to attract and retain valuable staff, prefer to contract corporate pension insurance. Benefit from it all. Employees are working quietly for the good of the company, knowing that they are guaranteed secured old age, and the company itself has tax benefits, while not increasing staff salaries. Incidentally, this approach is a common practice in developed countries. As a result – American and European retirees with the onset of old age may not indulge in the most good things of life.